Main Issue

Biodiverse production landscapes and seascapes that lie outside the protected area estate provide people with goods and services like food, pollination services, water, wood, energy and minerals. The use of natural resources in these landscapes and seascapes must be done sustainably in order to maintain biodiversity and the ecosystem goods and services it provides to society. Otherwise, resource users may unintentionally degrade the very resource they depend upon for their livelihoods. Read more+

What We Do

The GEF has for the past decade worked to embed biodiversity conservation and sustainability objectives in the management of wider production landscapes and seascapes through support to an array of policies, strategies and practices that engage key public and private sector actors in order to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity. This process, referred to as “biodiversity mainstreaming”, has focused primarily on the following suite of activities: 

a) developing policy and regulatory frameworks that remove perverse subsidies and provide incentives for biodiversity-friendly land and resource use that remains productive but that does not degrade biodiversity

b) spatial and land-use planning to ensure that land and resource use is appropriately situated to maximize production without undermining or degrading biodiversity

c) improving and changing production practices to be more biodiversity friendly with a focus on sectors that have significant biodiversity impacts (agriculture, forestry, fisheries, tourism, extractives)

d) piloting an array of financial mechanisms (certification, payment for environmental services, access and benefit sharing agreements, etc.) to provide financial incentives to actors to change current practices that may be degrading biodiversity. Read more+


From the mid-1990s to 2013, the GEF invested more than US$1.6 billion in 327 “biodiversity mainstreaming” projects in 135 countries, which generated another US$5.3 billion in financial support from other partners. GEF funds have provided biodiversity protection and planning for more than 350 million hectares of productive landscapes and seascapes. Read more+