Main Issue

The Paris Agreement on Climate Change rests upon a foundation of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) originally submitted by Parties to the Convention in 2015, and formally adopted on November 4, 2016 as the Agreement entered into force. Each NDC represents the national plans and pledges individual countries have made to meet the universal goal of keeping global temperature increases to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels (while aiming for 1.5 degrees Celsius) to avoid the worst impacts of climate change.

Consequently, a key result of the Paris Agreement negotiations was the establishment of an enhanced transparency framework for tracking and reporting the progress of existing and future country commitments, with built-in flexibility included for non-Annex I Parties. For this reason, the Capacity-building Initiative for Transparency (CBIT) was created at the request of Parties to help strengthen the institutional and technical capacities of non-Annex I countries to meet the enhanced transparency requirements defined in Article 13 of the Paris Agreement.

The CBIT has three aims:

  • Strengthen national institutions for transparency-related activities in line with national priorities; 
  • Provide relevant tools, training, and assistance for meeting the provisions stipulated in Article 13 of the Agreement; 
  • Assist in the improvement of transparency over time. 

What We Do

The CBIT is one of the ways in which the GEF is supporting the successful implementation of the Paris Agreement and its key pillars of transparency and accountability. For example, CBIT activities dovetail with the GEF’s critical provision of support to non-Annex I Parties to fulfill their reporting obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), including National Communications and Biennial Update Reports.

The Paris Agreement requested the GEF to support the establishment of the CBIT through voluntary contributions during GEF-6 and future replenishment cycles. Following COP 21, the GEF established the CBIT within one year due to high levels of donor support and successful engagement with countries and other key stakeholders.

The CBIT is an integral part of the GEF’s climate change support in GEF-7 (2018-2022) and projects are being supported from the GEF Trust Fund.

As an operating entity of the UNFCCC’s financial mechanism, the GEF will continue providing resources to developing countries in line with their NDCs under the Paris Agreement through the GEF Trust Fund, as well as the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF), and the Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF).


As of September 30, 2021 the CBIT project portfolio comprises 81 projects amounting to a total of $130.9 million and includes 75 individual country projects, one regional project that covers four countries, and five global projects. The CBIT global projects aim to improve knowledge sharing, coordination, and facilitate additional capacity-building. Key elements of the portfolio are:

  • Significant non-Annex I country coverage with CBIT portfolio providing support to 51.3 percent of non-Annex I countries and covering 73.2 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions from non-Annex I countries 
  • Regionally balanced portfolio with 29 projects in Africa, 20 projects in Latin America and Caribbean (LAC), 18 projects in Asia, nine projects in Europe and Central Asia (ECA), and five global projects 
  • Prioritizing support to Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and Small Island Developing States (SIDS) with CBIT projects in 28 LDCs and 15 SIDS of which two countries that are both LDC and SIDS

Of the 81 projects in the portfolio, 16 projects are at the concept stage and currently under development, while 65 have been CEO approved or endorsed and have begun implementation. Increasingly, CBIT projects are transitioning into the implementation phase and several are reporting on progress.

Looking Ahead

The CBIT in GEF-7 will be supported from the GEF Trust Fund, in line with the GEF Council decision on the Establishment of the CBIT Trust Fund, which stated that CBIT efforts will be an integral part of GEF’s climate change support for GEF-7, financed by the GEF Trust Fund under regular replenishment.

The GEF-7 period (2018 to 2022) coincides with a key phase in the implementation of the Paris Agreement. Per the rules of the Paris Agreement, each party is expected to update its NDC every five years and the information reported will inform a global “stocktake” that will assess collective progress towards achieving the 2 degree Celsius goal. The specific modalities, procedures and guidelines (MPGs) of the enhanced transparency framework were adopted at COP 24 in Katowice, Poland. The GEF is incorporating these outcomes into the CBIT program so that future projects reflect the evolving transparency demands of the Paris Agreement.