The Enhanced Transparency Framework (ETF) is the backbone of the implementation of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, as defined in its Article 13, and it is the internationally-agreed mechanism to monitor the progress of the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs).

The Global Environment Facility supports developing countries in building their institutional and technical capacities to meet the requirements of the ETF through:

  1. The Capacity-building Initiative for Transparency (CBIT);
  2. Support for reporting obligations under the Convention, i.e., National Communications (NCs) and Biennial Transparency Reports (BTRs);
  3. Global support for the ETF.

The GEF is strongly committed to supporting the Paris Agreement's implementation and its ETF.  Support for countries to build capacity and establish their monitoring and reporting systems is provided through the climate change focal area set-aside resources, which are additional to the country allocations under the GEF’s System for Transparency Allocation of Resources, or “STAR”. 

Resources available for the CBIT programming over the current replenishment period, GEF-8 (2022-2026), have increased to $75 million, compared to $55 million in the previous cycle. Additionally, resources for the preparation of NCs and BTRs also increased substantially to $145 million, compared to $110 million.


GEF support for the Capacity-building Initiative for Transparency (CBIT) was established shortly after the adoption of the Paris Agreement to provide quick-access support to countries and to boost their capacity to enhance the transparency of action as well as the transparency of support received.  As such, the CBIT is a key channel of the GEF’s support for successfully implementing the Paris Agreement and its key pillars of transparency and accountability. It does so by enhancing institutional arrangements for climate transparency, strengthening national Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) systems, and informing NDC enhancement and decision-making.

The Paris Agreement requested the GEF to support the establishment of the CBIT through voluntary contributions during GEF-6 and future replenishment cycles. Following the adoption of the Paris Agreement at UN Climate Change Conference COP21, the GEF established the CBIT Trust Fund in six months and began supporting national projects by COP22 thanks to high levels of donor support and successful engagement with countries and other key stakeholders. The CBIT support is available to countries upon request and is provided in a timely manner.

In GEF-8, the CBIT has been fully integrated into the climate change focal area’s strategy, with new CBIT projects now being supported directly by the GEF Trust Fund. Once countries have completed the first stage of their CBIT projects, they can request subsequent CBIT support.

The CBIT has three aims:

  1. Strengthen national institutions for transparency-related activities in line with national priorities; 
  2. Provide relevant tools, training, and assistance for meeting the provisions stipulated in Article 13 of the Agreement; 
  3. Assist in the improvement of transparency over time.

Countries can access complementary support for the ETF with both the CBIT and reporting, such as with BTRs and NCs.


Since its inception, the GEF has supported various types of climate change-related enabling activities, including Biennial Update Reports (BURs), BTRs, National Adaptation Plans of Action (NAPAs), NCs, and Technology Needs Assessments (TNAs). They fulfill essential communication requirements under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and provide information to enable policy and decision-making.

The GEF has significantly scaled up its support to BTRs under the Paris Agreement in terms of both financial resources and awareness and capacity building activities. Since January 1, 2022, support for BURs was phased out as communicated in the information note GEF/C.59/Inf.19.

All developing country Parties to the Paris Agreement are eligible to receive financing for the preparation of BTRs and NCs. The GEF modalities of support and indicative costing for preparing BTRs and NCs are presented in the information note GEF/C.62/Inf.15.

Global Support to the ETF

The CBIT Global Support Program capitalizes on the experiences of two previous global projects: the Global Support Program (GSP) and the CBIT Global Coordination Platform (GCP). The CBIT GSP is under implementation until the end of 2026 and provides streamlined support to countries in the transition to the ETF through various global, regional, and national support modalities. Capitalizing on the experience from the previous GSP, the critical support modality is the collective ten Regional Transparency Networks, which provide targeted support to countries and foster South-South exchange and learning within and across networks.

Climate Transparency Platform

The Climate Transparency Platform was developed and launched in June 2023 during the 58th Subsidiary Body Meetings in Bonn, Germany, providing a one-stop-shop for the global climate transparency community, with the latest events, knowledge products, overview of transparency projects, and support providers as well as dedicated network pages for South-South exchange and peer learning.



Since its establishment in 2016, the CBIT Trust Fund has supported 94 projects in 88 countries for a total of $156.3 million in GEF project financing, project preparation grant, and agency fees.

As of November 1, 2023, out of the 94 CBIT projects, the GEF has supported 84 individual country projects, one regional project (comprising four countries), and seven global projects. Resources are allocated based on country demands on a first come, first served basis. Fourteen of these projects have completed implementation and are encouraged to submit requests for support for subsequent CBIT phases.

The GEF Secretariat reports bi-annually about the CBIT in its progress reports, submitted as an information document to each GEF Council meeting.


Since its inception, the GEF has funded 492 enabling activity or reporting projects, which account for $619.4 million, supporting BURs, BTRs, NCs, and TNAs.

As of November 1, 2023, a total of 207 BURs have been approved for GEF funding in 132 countries, a total of 543 NCs have been approved for GEF funding in 152 countries, and a total of 104 BTRs have been approved for GEF funding in 78 countries.

Up-to-date information on GEF support for reporting under the Convention and the Paris Agreement is provided in the GEF Annual Report to the UNFCCC COP.